Leukocytes in blood and spleen in response to COAM during hyperacute EAE. Mice were immunized for hyperacute EAE and administered 2 mg COAM i.p. on days 0 and 7. Blood cells and splenocytes were collected on days 5, 9 and 14 to 16 after immunization. (A) Blood cells were stained with anti-CD11b-FITC and anti-Gr-1-PE and this analysis demonstrated COAM-induced transient blood neutrophilia at day nine in hyperacute EAE-induced mice. (B) Macrophages in the circulation were assessed by FACS analysis with anti-F4/80-PE and anti-CD11b-FITC. (C) COAM induced a decrease in the number of spleen CD4+ lymphocytes on days five and nine. (D) CD8+ splenocytes were identified with anti-CD8-FITC. (A-D) The data were combined from three independent experiments. Bars indicate the means ± SEM of three to nine mice. * P <0.05; ** P <0.01 for comparison with naive mice; Mann Whitney test. Pairwise comparisons between saline- and COAM-treated hyperacute EAE mice are indicated above the histograms. COAM, chlorite-oxidized oxyamylose; EAE, experimental autoimmune encephalomyelitis; FITC, fluorescein isothiocyanate; PE, phycoerythrin; SEM, standard error of the mean.