LRRK2 kinase inhibition blocks Tat-induced S935 phosphorylation and inflammatory cytokine expression in BV-2 cells. (A) Western blot depicting pS935-LRRK2 and total LRRK2 protein levels 12 hours after saline or Tat-treatment ± LRRK2 kinase inhibition (LRRK2i). (B) Tat treatment significantly increased pS935-LRRK2, which was attenuated by LRRK2i. (C) We measured TNF-α, IL-6, MCP-1 and IL-10 mRNA levels by qRT-PCR 12 hours post saline or Tat treatment ± LRRK2i. LRRK2i attenuated Tat-induced TNF-α, IL-6, MCP-1 and IL-10 expression for all groups (*P <0.05, ***P <0.001, one way ANOVA, Newman-Keuls post-test). ANOVA, analysis of variance; LRRK2, leucine-rich repeat kinase2; pS935, phosphorylation of serine 935; Tat, trans activator of transcription.