Activated microglia are essential for the decrease in L-Glu uptake in the model of inflammation without cell death. (A) Immunostaining of four types of cultures: astrocyte-microglia-neuron mixed culture (a), astrocyte culture (b), astrocyte-microglia co-culture (c), and neuron-astrocyte co-culture (d). (B) The effects of LPS (10 ng/mL, 72 h) on the concentration of L-Glu remaining in the four types of culture. Inhibitory effects were obtained in (a) and (c). **P < 0.01 vs. control group (n = 6), Student’s t-test. (C) The effects of LPS (10 ng/mL, 72 h) on the concentration of L-Glu remaining in microglial pure culture. The concentration of L-Glu remaining did not change during the assay (30 min).