Time course of microglia and astrocyte activation in the hippocampus after controlled cortical impact. (A) Confocal immunofluorescence staining for activated microglia (CD11b) in the ipsilateral hippocampal dentate gyrus at designated time points after TBI. Panel '1d mag' is a magnified view showing amoeboid morphology of activated microglia (arrows). (B) Quantification of microglial activation. (C) Astrocytes are immunostained for GFAP (green), and staining is quantified in (D). Scale bars are 20 μm. n = 3 at each time point; * p < 0.05, ** p < 0.01 vs. sham.