Post-injury treatment with INO-1001 reduces microglia and astrocyte activation. (A) Coronal rat brain sections showing microglial activation (CD11b immunostaining, brown) around the lesion sits. Rats were treated with vehicle or INO-1001 beginning 1 day after TBI, and brains were harvested at day 7. (B) Higher power confocal immunofluorescence staining of microglia (CD11b, red) and astrocytes (GFAP, green) in the peri-lesion cortex of rats treated with INO-1001 or vehicle. (C) Quantification of immunofluorescence. (D) Immunostaining in the ipsilateral hippocampal dentate gyrus of rats treated with INO-1001 or vehicle at day 7 post-TBI. (E) Quantifications of immunostaining in ipsilateral hippocampus. Scale bars are 20 μm. n = 3; *P < 0.05, **P < 0.01.