No rebound inflammation after INO-1001 is discontinued. Rats were treated with INO-1001 (or vehicle) beginning 1 day after TBI in one of two regimens: i) for 12 days, then euthanized, or ii) for 12 days followed by 4 days without treatment. (A) Confocal immunostaining of microglia (CD11b) and astrocytes (GFAP) in peri-lesion cortex. (B) Quantification shows no significant increase in microglial or astrocyte activation after stopping INO-1001. (C) Confocal immunostaining of microglia and astrocytes in the ipsilateral hippocampus dentate gyrus. (D) Quantification shows no increase in microglial or astrocyte activation after stopping INO-1001. Bars represents 20 μm. n = 4-5; *P < 0.05, **P < 0.01 vs. vehicle treatment.