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Figure 1 | Journal of Neuroinflammation

Figure 1

From: Immunological characterization and transcription profiling of peripheral blood (PB) monocytes in children with autism spectrum disorders (ASD) and specific polysaccharide antibody deficiency (SPAD): case study

Figure 1

Cytokine production by PBMCs from ASD/SPAD, normal control, ASD/non-SPAD and non-ASD/SPAD children when stimulated by TLR agonists. IL-12p40/IL-10 production with TLR4 agonist (LPS) (Panel A), IL-6 production with TLR2/6 and 7/8 agonists or without a stimulus (Panel B), spontaneous production of TNF-α, IL-1ß, and IL-10 as well as IL-23 production with TLR4 and 7/8 agonists (Panel C), and IL-6 production with TLR4 agonist (Panel D) was shown. PBMCs (106 cells/ml) were incubated with TLR agonists as indicated overnight and cytokine levels in the culture supernatant were measured by ELISA. In Figs 1-2, the results of cytokine production with stimuli shown were those corrected by subtracting the levels of cytokines produced without a stimulus. *; lower than all the study groups (p < 0.05).

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