Role of mGluR5 and Akt/PI3K in MA-mediated expression of IL-6 and IL-8. SVGA astrocytes were treated with 25 μM of MPEP or 10 μM of LY294002 for 1 hour prior to the MA treatment every day for three days and the total mRNA was isolated 24 hours after the last treatment of MA. The relative mRNA expression levels were measured for IL-6 and IL-8 using real time RT-PCR and the % mRNA expression levels of IL-6 and IL-8 due to MPEP (A, B, respectively) and LY294002 (C, D, respectively) were determined relative to cytokine levels measured from SVGA cells treated with MA in the absence of the inhibitors. Cells treated with inhibitors alone did not alter the basal expression levels of IL-6 and IL-8 (data not shown). Cytokine expression levels of MA-treated cells relative to untreated controls were similar to those levels shown in Figure 1C and D. Each bar represents the mean ± SE of three experiments with each experiment performed in triplicate. The statistical significance was calculated using student's t-test and ** denotes P ≤ 0.01. mGluR5, metabotropic glutamate receptor-5; MA, methamphetamine.