Schematic of the signaling pathways involved in MA-mediated expression levels of IL-6 and IL-8. Exposure to MA leads to the activation of excitatory neurotransmitters and leads to mGluR5-mediated activation of Akt/PI3K signaling pathways. Activated Akt/PI3K phosphorylates IKK which results in the phosporylation of p-IκB and releases the heterodimeric NF-κB (p50/p65) in the cytoplasm. NF-κB then translocates from the cytoplasm to the nucleus and leads to enhanced IL-6 and IL-8 expression in astrocytes. IKK, inhibitory Kappa B kinase; MA, methamphetamine; mGluR5, metabotropic glutamate receptor-5; NF-κB, nuclear factor-Kappa B.