Effect of pioglitazone on DETANONOate-mediated reductions in neuronal survival in cortical neuronal cultures. (a) The effect of DETANONOate exposure (MIN NO) on cortical neuronal cell viability in vitro compared to serum free minimal media (MIN); and the effect of different concentrations (10 nM to 10 μM) of peroxisome proliferator activated receptor-γ (PPAR-γ) agonist, pioglitazone (Pio) on cortical neuronal cell viability in
vitro (***P < 0.001 compared to MIN and *P < 0.05 compared to MIN NO; n = 5). Cultures were pre-treated with pioglitazone for 1 hour, prior to exposure to DETANONOate. (b) The effect of pre-treatment with the specific PPAR-γ antagonist, GW9662 (1 μM) on cortical neuronal viability in vitro compared to the effect of pioglitazone (1 μM) (***P < 0.001 compared to MIN, *P < 0.05 compared to MIN NO and *P < 0.05 compared to MIN NO Pio 1 μM). Cultures were treated with GW9662 for 1 hour prior to incubation with pioglitazone and DETANONOate. Cell viability was assessed by MTT assay. Data are expressed as percentage of cells grown in B27. Statistical significance was obtained by one-way ANOVA followed by a Bonferroni post-hoc test. ANOVA, analysis of variance.