Localization of interleukin-6 and keratinocyte-derived chemokine in the brain 48 h after middle cerebral artery occlusion. Coronal brain sections were immunolabeled with specific antibodies 48 h after MCAO. (A) Representative IL-6 and KC immunohistochemistry of the ischemic cerebral cortex of vehicle- and D-JNKI1-treated animals (left panels). Both cytokines are up-regulated in the ischemic region compared with sham mice, which show little labeling (right panels). Nissl-stained coronal sections are shown at the top. The paler area is the ischemic lesion. (B, C) Double immunofluorescent staining of neurons (NeuN; red, top line), astrocytes (GFAP; red, middle line) or microglia (CD11b; red, bottom line), and IL-6 (green, left panel) or KC (green, right panel) in the ischemic cortex of vehicle- and D-JNKI1-treated mice. Yellow staining shows co-localization of IL-6 (B) with neurons and microglia but not astrocytes. KC (C) co-localizes mainly with astrocytes and microglia rather than neurons. D-JNKI1 treatment does not obviously change IL-6 and KC cell localization after MCAO.