Comparison of immune response-associated soluble factors expression levels between GD17 and PND5 brain homogenates in phosphate-buffered saline-treated animals show a similar expression profile. (A) Pro- and anti-inflammatory cytokine expression levels were very similar in pre- and postnatal animals. IL-7, IL-13 and IL-15 were significantly higher in PND5 brain homogenates while IL-1β and IL-17 showed lower concentration levels compared with prenatal brains. IL-1α, IL-2, IL-3, IL-4, IL-5, IL-6, IL-12(p40), IL-12(p70), IL-15, IL-17, IFN-γ, TNF-α and LIF were not detected in GD17 brain. (B) Chemokines MIP-1α and MIG had lower concentration levels in postnatal compared with prenatal brains, while MIP-1β and KC showed higher concentration levels. LIX and MIP-2 were not detected in GD17 brain homogenates. (C) CSF, GM-CSF and M-CSF were significantly higher in postnatal brains while VEGF was significantly lower. G-CSF was not detected in GD17 brain homogenates. Values are expressed as the mean ± standard error of the mean; GD17, n = 10; PND5, n = 11. ND: not detected.