Effect of 15 days of sleep fragmentation (SF) on energy metabolism in the cortex. (A) ATP levels in cortical tissues from mice with or without SF; there was no significant difference between the groups. (n = 4/group) (B) Representative western blots showing the lack of -activated protein kinase (AMPK)α phosphorylation in the same tissues. E10 epithelial cells exposed to 0.2% O2 for 24 hours were used as a positive control (+) for phospho- (p)AMPK. (C) Homer1a expression remains unaltered over the course of SF (n = 6/time point).