Longitudinal monitoring of cytokines in the brain of APPswePS1dE9 mice. IL1-β and TNF-Α levels were measured by ELISA in cortex (A and B) and hippocampus (C and D) of APPswePS1dE9 (APP) and wild-type mice (WT) at three, six and twelve months of age. Cytokine levels were expressed in pg/mg protein. Results are mean ± SEM of 12 mice in each group. Comparison between APP and WT mice at each age by a Mann-Whitney test: **
P < 0.01, ***
P < 0.001; comparison of the 3 classes of age (Kruskall-Wallis test) followed by two-by-two comparisons (Dunn’s multiple comparison test in APP mice): #
P < 0.05 for 6-month old versus 12-month old APP mice, ###
P < 0.001 for 3-month old versus 12-month old APP mice.