Nitric oxide surge in co-culture and reduction in microglial proliferation are mediated by TNF-α modulation. BV2 cells and mesenchymal stem cells (MSC) were seeded at a 0.2 ratio into 96 well plates. After overnight incubation, 1 μg/ml lipopolysaccharide (LPS) and (a,c) tumour necrosis factor (TNF)- α blocking antibodies or (b,d) recombinant TNF-α were added at concentrations indicated below the graph, and NO2
- concentration (a,b) and proliferation (c,d) was analysed at 48 hours. Values are expressed as mean ± standard deviation from three independent experiments. Controls are culture wells without blocking antibodies. *P < 0.05, versus control BV2 cells; #P < 0.05, ##P < 0.001, versus control BV2 +μlPS;фP < 0.05, ффP < 0.001, versus control co-culture +μlPS.