Effects of IL-6 exposure on astrocytes and neuronal cultures. (A) Cultured neurons and astrocytes were exposed to IL-6 for 2 hours and allowed to recover for 1 hour prior to imaging. Cells were fixed with 4% PFA and labeled with neuronal marker Tuj-1 or GFAP, an astrocyte marker. Appearance, process length, and cell density were similar to the untreated, matched controls. (B) Venn diagram illustrating the number of features with significant differences between IL-6 treatment and matched, sham-treated control cultures (P <0.05; | ALR | >0.585, that is, >50% of control). Numerals denote the number of features (m/z and retention time pairs) with significantly different levels, while arrows denote directionality of change in comparison to controls. Note that the neuronal and astroglial exometabolome response to IL-6 treatment is distinct. (C) Global principal component analysis (PCA) of ultra-performance liquid chromatography - ion mobility - mass spectrometry (UPLC-IM-MS) data illustrating that there are distinct metabolic signatures between neuronal and astroglial sample types.