Neuronal death, retinal pigment epithelium vacuoles and optic nerve degeneration occur after ocular trauma. (A-C) Representative Brightfield micrographs of the retina and RPE. (D-E) Representative Brightfield micrographs of the optic nerve. (A) Control retina and RPE shows normal histology. (B) A retinal detachment with subretinal debris is present in conjunction with pyknotic nuclei (arrows) in the ONL. The RPE contains grade 5 vacuoles (arrowheads) and phagocytosed debris. (C) There are fewer pyknotic nuclei (arrow) in the retina and the RPE vacuoles (arrowheads) are smaller in size at 28 days post-blast wave exposure. (D) The control optic nerve appears normal. (E) At 28 days the optic nerve contains degenerating axons with collapsed myelin (arrowheads). The scale bars in the low and high magnification retina images are 50 μm and the scale bar in the RPE images is 20 μm. The scale bar for the optic nerve images is 5 μm. IS = inner segments; ONL = outer nuclear layer, OPL: outer plexiform layer, INL: inner nuclear layer, IPL: inner plexiform layer; GCL = ganglion cell layer; RPE = retinal pigment epithelium.