Effects of ATB-346 on Nuclear factor κB ( NFκB ) pathway and pro-inflammatory enzymes. Degradation of IκBα was significantly blocked by Naproxen and ATB-346 treatment (A). Moreover, ATB-346 treatment resulted in an inhibition of nuclear translocation of p65 (B). Translocation of NFκB is a critical step in the coupling of extracellular stimuli to the transcriptional activation of specific target genes. A significant increase in inducible nitric oxide synthase (iNOS) and cyclooxygenase (COX)-2 (C and D, respectively) was observed in the injured area from TBI mice compared with the Sham mice. ATB-346-treated mice had notably reduced expression of pro-inflammatory enzymes (C and D, respectively). Data show one representative blot from three independent experiments with similar results. Mean ± SEM of four to five animals per group. One-way ANOVA, followed by Bonferroni’s multiple comparison test. ***P <0.001 versus sham, ##P <0.01, ###P <0.001 versus TBI, °P <0.05 versus TBI + naproxen.