Effects of ATB-346 on tumor necrosis factor (TNF)α expression in glial fibrillary acidic protein (GFAP) positive cells. Brain tissue was double-stained with antibodies against GFAP, green) and TNFα (red). The red spots indicate the co-localizations (merged). Brain sections revealed increased astrogliosis (GFAP+ cells) in TBI and TBZ panels. Considerable GFAP immunoreactivity was present in TBI and TBZ panels. TNFα expression was significantly reduced by ATB-346 treatment (TBI + ATB-346 panels) compared to naproxen treatment (TBI + naproxen panels). All images were digitalized at 600 dpi.