Effects of ATB-346 on interleukin (IL)-1β expression in glial fibrillary acidic protein (GFAP) positive cells. Brain tissue was double-stained with antibodies against GFAP (green) and IL-1β (red). Brain sections revealed increased astrogliosis (GFAP+ cells) in TBI and TBZ panels. Considerable GFAP immunoreactivity was present in TBI and TBZ panels. IL-1β expression was significantly reduced after ATB-346 treatment (TBI + ATB-346 panels) respect to naproxen treatment (TBI + naproxen panels). All images were digitalized at 600 dpi.