The effect of the osteopontin-derived N134–153 peptide on preterm brain injury. Bar graphs show the total tissue volume loss (%) in the gray matter (A and C) and white matter (B and D) in mice that received intranasally administered osteopontin amino acids 134 to 153 (N134–153) (A and B) and intracerebroventricularly (ICV) administered N134–153 (C and D) at 7 days after hypoxia-ischemia (HI)-induced injury. Intranasal administration: vehicle (Veh), n = 20; N134–153, n = 16. ICV administration: vehicle (Veh), n = 31; N134–153, n = 15. Data presented are the mean ± SD. *P < 0.05. (E) Representative immunohistochemical stains of microtubule-associated protein 2 (MAP-2) (gray matter) and myelin basic protein (MBP) (white matter) showing injury (arrows) in brain sections of the vehicle-treated (Veh) and N134–153-treated mice at 7 days after HI injury in postnatal day 5 mice.