mRNA expression of cellular activation, inflammatory response and oxidative stress in choroid plexus. Rabbit pups with IVH + PHVD (grey bars; n = 6 at 24 hours and n = 9 at 72 hours) or sham controls (white bars; n = 6 at 24 hours and n = 9 at 72 hours) were euthanized at 24 and 72 hours of age and the brains were removed from the skulls and the choroid plexus was carefully removed from the lateral ventricles, snap frozen, and the mRNA expression of TLR-4 (A), IL1R1 (B), FAS (C), NF-Κβ (D), MCP-1 (E), IL-8 (F), IL-1β (G), TNFα (H), IL-6 (I), and HO-1 (J) were subsequently analyzed with real-time PCR, as described in Materials and Methods. mRNA expression of TLR-4, IL1R1, FAS, NF-Κβ, MCP-1, IL-8, IL-1β, TNFα, IL-6, and HO-1 were normalized against those of GAPDH and are given as fold change. The fold-change values were calculated by normalizing against samples from control pups. Results are presented as box plots displaying medians and 25th and 75th percentiles. Differences between IVH + PHVD versus control at 24 and 72 hours, respectively, were analyzed using the Mann-Whitney U-test. *P < 0.05, **P < 0.01, ***P < 0.001. GAPDH, glyceraldehyde-3-phosphate dehydrogenase; IVH, intraventricular hemorrhage; PHVD, post-hemorrhagic ventricular dilatation.