Analysis of TNFα protein and distribution in choroid plexus. Rabbit pups with IVH + PHVD (B and C) or sham controls (A and C) were euthanized at 24 and 72 hours of age and the brains were removed from the skulls. For EM-IHC, the choroid plexus of rabbit pups at 72 hours were fixed and prepared as described in the Materials and Methods. Sections were stained against TNFα and observed in a Jeol JEM 1230 electron microscope. Recessed picture display mitochondrial structure. CP = choroid plexus, V = ventricle, Vi = villi. Scale bar in (A) indicate 500 nm (is applicable for panels (A) and (B)). Analysis of TNFα protein (C) levels in choroid plexus tissue of preterm rabbit pups with IVH + PHVD (grey bars; n = 6 at 24 hours and n = 9 at 72 hours) and in control pups (white bars; n = 6 at 24 hours and n = 9 at 72 hours) using ELISA, as described in the Materials and Methods section. Results were corrected for total protein content and are presented as TNFα/total protein (pg/mg) displaying mean ± SEM. The difference between IVH versus control at 72 hours was analyzed using the Mann-Whitney U-test. ***P < 0.001. IVH, intraventricular hemorrhage; PHVD, post-hemorrhagic ventricular dilatation.