Hp reduces Hb-induced cellular activation, inflammatory response and oxidative stress in the choroid plexus. Rabbit pups with confirmed IVH, injected intraventricularly with Hp (grey bars; n = 6) or sham (white bars; n = 6) 6 hours after confirmation of the bleeding, were euthanized at 24 hours of age and the brains were removed from the skulls and the choroid plexus was carefully removed from the lateral ventricles, snap frozen, and the mRNA expression of IL1R1 (A), FAS (B), NF-Κβ (C), MCP-1 (D), IL-8 (E), IL-1β (F), TNFα (G), IL-6 (H) and HO-1 (I) were subsequently analyzed with real-time PCR, as described in Materials and Methods. mRNA expression for respective gene was normalized against those of glyceraldehyde-3-phosphate dehydrogenase (GAPDH) and is given as fold change. The fold-change values were calculated by normalizing against samples from control pups. Results are presented as box plots displaying medians and 25th and 75th percentiles. Differences between IVH + Hp versus IVH + Sham at 24 hours were analyzed using the Mann-Whitney U-test. *P < 0.05, **P < 0.01, ***P < 0.001.