Systemic anti-TNF therapy does not affect infarct volume after focal cerebral ischemia. (A) Toluidine blue staining of brain sections from mice treated with either saline, XPro1595 or etanercept and allowed to survive for either six hours, 24 hours or five days. Scale bar: 1 mm. (B) Direct infarct volume measurements showed no difference in infarct volumes between saline-, XPro1595- and etanercept-treated mice at either six hours ( eight to 15 per group), 24 hours (15 per group) or five days (14 to 17 per group) (one-way ANOVA). A significant drop in infarct size was observed in all three groups five days after pMCAO, compared to six and 24 hours (*P <0.05, **P <0.01). ANOVA, analysis of variance; d, days; h, hours; IF, infarct; pMCAO, permanent middle cerebral artery occlusion; Str, striatum.