Effects of post-training administration of spermine and LPS in the levels of proinflammatory and anti-inflammatory cytokines in hippocampus. Immediately after the training session of the object recognition task, animals received saline, LPS (250 μg/kg, intraperitoneally), spermine (0.3 mg/kg, intraperitoneally) or a combination of LPS (250 μg/kg, intraperitoneally) and spermine (0.3 mg/kg, intraperitoneally), and were euthanized 4 hours after injections to measure the levels of (A) IL-1β, (B) IL-6, (C) TNF-α, (D) ITF-γ, and (E) IL-10 in the hippocampus. *P < 0.05 between pooled post-training saline (SAL-SAL and SAL-SPM groups) and pooled post-training LPS (LPS-SAL and LPS-SPM groups) by Bonferroni’s t test. #P < 0.05 between pooled post-training saline (SAL-SAL and LPS-SAL groups) and pooled post-training spermine (SAL-SPM and LPS-SPM groups). Data are the mean ± standard error of the mean of 4 or 5 animals per group. LPS, lipopolysaccharide; SAL, saline; SPM, spermine.