β-hydroxybutyric acid (BHBA) treatment inhibits microglial activation and downregulates mRNA expression of pro-inflammatory mediators in the substantia nigra (SN) of lipopolysaccharide (LPS)-induced Parkinson’s disease (PD) model rats. (A) The morphological changes of the microglia in the SN as shown by IBA-1 immunostaining. Representative photomicrographs of the SN area are shown. The scale bar indicates 100 μm. (B) Western blot assay of O-X42 expression. The experiments were repeated three times. A representative immunoblot is shown. (C-G) Real-time RT-PCR analysis of pro-inflammatory enzyme (iNOS and COX-2) and pro-inflammatory cytokine (TNF-α, IL-1β, and IL-6) expression in the SN of LPS-induced PD model rats. The data are expressed as fold changes relative to the sham-operated control rats. The results are expressed as the mean ± SD. *P <0.05 and **P <0.01 compared with the LPS-treated rats; and ##
P <0.01 compared with the sham-operated control rats.