Lipopolysaccharide (LPS) enhances expression of GPR109A in primary rat microglial cells. (A) RT mixtures from primary rat microglial cells were carried out to detect GPR109A mRNA expression by PCR amplification (M, 2000 bp DNA marker). PCR products were visualized by 2% agarose gel electrophoresis, and the expected 134-bp GPR109A was detected in the primary rat microglial cells. (B) Western blot of GPR109A in primary rat microglial cells showing a specific band of the expected size at approximately 50 kDa. (C) Microglial cells were treated with 0, 0.5, 1, or 10 ng/ml of LPS for the indicated times. GPR109A mRNA expression was quantified by quantitative real-time RT-PCR and normalized to β-actin mRNA expression.