NLRP1 inflammasome contributes to pyroptosis in chronic temporal lobe epilepsy. High NLRP1 levels were found in pyramidal neurons of the brain. The spontaneous seizures may set fire to neuronal NLRP1 inflammasome via potassium efflux and other channels. Then, the activation of NLRP1 inflammasome leads to the caspase-1-mediated pyroptosis and secretion of IL-1β, which ultimately induces TLE pathology through several downstream effects in brain. Our current study mainly indicated that the caspase-1-induced neuronal pyroptosis provides a molecular basis for the spontaneous seizures in TLE process.