Deferoxamine (DFO) attenuates lipopolysaccharide (LPS)-induced microglial activation and inflammatory cytokine accumulation. (A, B) Representative images of Iba1-labeled activated microglia in the hippocampal C1 area. Activated microglia is shown in green. Scale bars = 40 μm for (A) and 10 μm for (B). (C, D) Quantification of the Iba+ cell average number and the mean grey intensity. (E, F) Levels of IL-1β and TNF-α in samples of the hippocampus. Data are expressed as mean ± SE (n = 6). *P <0.05, ***P <0.001 vs. control; #P <0.05 vs. LPS. Con, control; DFO, deferoxamine; LPS, lipopolysaccharide; SE, standard error.