An immunofluorescence double labeling image (x 20) showing the effects of intra-PVN infusion of VIPER on protein expression of TLR4 and NeuN in the PVN of WKY and SHR rats. n = 5/group. SHR + CP rats showed higher levels of immunofluorescence for TLR4 within the neurons of PVN, whereas, VIPER infusion in these rats caused significant reduction in TLR4 expression. Arrow indicates double- labeled cells.VIPER infusion in saline-infused rats did not have any effects. Scale bar 20 μm: CP, control peptide; NeuN, neuronal nuclei; PVN, paraventricular nucleus; SHR, spontaneously hypertensive rat; TLR4, Toll-like receptor 4; VIPER, viral inhibitory peptide of TLR4; WKY, wistar-Kyoto.