Effects of PVN infusion of VIPER on gene and protein expression of TLR4 and HMGB1 in WKY and SHR rats. (A) mRNA expression of TLR4; (B) protein expression of TLR4; (C) A representative immunoblot; (D) mRNA expression of HMGB1; (E) protein expression of HMGB1; and (F) plasma levels of HMGB1. Values are means ± SE. n = 8 in each group for mRNA analysis, n = 5 in each group for western blot, and n = 8 for plasma HMGB1. ***P <0.001 : HMGB1, high mobility group box 1; PVN, paraventricular nucleus; SHR, spontaneously hypertensive rat; TLR4, Toll-like receptor 4; VIPER, viral inhibitory peptide of TLR4; WKY, wistar-Kyoto.