Effects of bilateral intra-PVN infusion of VIPER on (A) NFκB activity of PVN tissue and (B) plasma levels of norepinephrine (NE) in WKY and SHR rats. NFκB activity assay showing increased activity in PVN of SHR + CP rats when compared to WKY + CP rats, whereas, VIPER infusion in SHR rats resulted in significant reduction in the NFκB activity. Similar trends were observed with regard to plasma norepinephrine levels as well. Values are means ± SE. n = 6/group for NFκB activity; n = 8 for plasma NE analysis. ***P <0.001. CP, control peptide; NE, norepinephrine; NFĸB, nuclear factor-kappa B; PVN, paraventricular nucleus; SHR, spontaneously hypertensive rat; TLR4, Toll-like receptor 4; TNF-α, tumor necrosis factor-alpha; VIPER, viral inhibitory peptide of TLR4; WKY, wistar-Kyoto.