Changes of TNFα and IRS1 (Ser307) levels in REC. (A) Enzyme-linked immunosorbent assay (ELISA) data for tumor necrosis factor alpha (TNFα) on retinal endothelial cells (REC) in normal glucose (NG, 5 mM) or high glucose (HG, 25 mM) and transfected groups. microRNA (miR)-15b/16 decreased TNFα levels significantly compared to the control HG condition. (B) Western blot results for phosphorylated IRS1 on Ser307 and total IRS1. Increased levels of insulin receptor substrate 1 (IRS-1)Ser307 phosphorylation under hyperglycemic conditions were not changed in REC with miR overexpression. A representative blot is shown. #
P < 0.05 versus NG, *P < 0.05 versus HG, N = 3; data are mean ± S.E.M.