Immunopositive area fraction of GFAP (A) and HLA-DR (B) in the hippocampal subfields of MTLE
(black boxplots), MTLE + D (dark gray boxplots), MTLE + P (light gray boxplots), and CTRL group (white boxplots). (A) All MTLE groups showed higher GFAP immunopositive area in OML, IML, GCL, HIL, CA4, CA3, CA1, PRO, SUB, and PAR (compared to CTRL). MTLEW and MTLE + P had increased GFAP area in IML, GCL, and CA2 (compared to MTLE + D). MTLE + D and MTLE + P had increased GFAP area in the ERC (compared to CTRL). MTLEW had increased GFAP immunopositive area in CA1, and MTLE + P had higher GFAP immunopositive area in the OML (compared to MTLE + D). (B) MTLE + P had increased immunopositive HLA-DR area in CA3 (when compared to all other groups), in the HIL (compared to MTLE and CTRL), and OML, GCL, CA2, CA1, and PRO (compared to CTRL). MTLE patients had increased HLA-DR immunopositive area in GCL, CA3, and CA2 (compared to CTRL). CA1 = cornus ammonis region 1; CA2 = cornus ammonis region 2; CA3 = cornus ammonis region 3; CA4 = cornus ammonis region 4; CTRL = control; ERC = entorhinal cortex; GCL = granule cell layer; GFAP = glial fibrillary acidic protein; HLA-DR = human leukocyte antigen, MHC class II; HIL = hilus; IML = inner molecular layer; MTLE = mesial temporal lobe epilepsy; MTLE + D = MTLE + major depression; MTLE + P = MTLE + interictal psychosis; MTLEW = MTLE subjects without psychiatric history; OML = outer molecular layer; PAR = parasubiculum; PRO = prosubiculum; SUB = subiculum. *Indicates difference from CTRL; #indicates difference from MTLE + D; and xindicates difference from MTLEW.