The effects of intraperitoneal injection of TIIAS on SNL-induced pJNK expression. (A) High-magnification images demonstrated pJNK (green) was predominantly colocalized with GFAP (red) as shown by overlapped staining (rightmost panel, yellow). Scale bar, 20 μm. (B, C) Western blot analysis of pJNK showed that pJNK expression increased in the ipsilateral dorsal spinal cord of SNL rats at POD 10 after surgery. However, SNL-induced pJNK expression was suppressed by intraperitoneal administration of TIIAS in a dose-dependent manner. Asterisk, number sign, or ampersand each indicates statistically significant difference (P < 0.05) between groups, n = 4 for each group. SNL, spinal nerve ligation; TIIAS, tanshinone IIA sulfonate; Veh, vehicle; JNK, c-Jun N-terminal kinase.