Acute intestinal inflammation activates hippocampal microglia. Mice were sacrificed on day 7 after the beginning of DSS treatment. (A) Plasma levels of pro-inflammatory cytokines (n = 6/group); (B) Western blot analysis of Iba1, IL-6, and p21 in the hippocampus (n = 3/group). Experiment was repeated two times, and representative blots are shown; (C) mRNA levels of pro-inflammatory cytokines and p21. Data are shown as mean ± SEM of two independent experiments. Samples from two experiments (n = 4/group) were run together in triplicates and normalized against GAPDH. Results are expressed in fold change vs. control taken as 1 (broken line); *p < 0.05; **p < 0.01. Cont, control; DSS, dextran sodium sulfate; GAPDH, glyceraldehyde 3-phosphate dehydrogenase.