Time window for suppression of acute cytokine surge by MW151. (A) Temporal changes in IL-1β protein levels were measured in tissue homogenates from the cortex of adult C57BL/6 J mice subjected to sham conditions (red line mean ± SEM), or at select time points after the CHI (n = 4 per group). (B) Treatment of mice with MW151 (5 mg/kg i.p.) at 3 and 6 h post-injury (p.i.) significantly reduced IL-1β up-regulation at 9 h p.i., compared to CHI + saline vehicle (veh) control (n = 4 sham; n = 9 CHI + veh; n = 10 CHI + MW151). (C, D) Injured mice were treated with veh or MW151 (5 mg/kg i.p.) at 3 h and 6 h, at 3 h only, or at 6 h only, and cytokine and chemokine protein levels were measured in cortex homogenates at 9 h p.i. (n = 7 to 20 per group). (C) Injury-induced IL-1β levels were significantly suppressed with MW151 regardless of time of treatment. (D) Heatmap of the relative changes in cytokine and chemokine protein levels showing the specificity of MW151 for IL-1β and IL-6. Significance for a given inflammatory marker is indicated by *P < 0.05, **P < 0.005, ***P < 0.001 compared to sham treated mice. ‡P < 0.05 compared to CHI + veh.