Lipopolysaccharide (LPS) administration triggers transient shrinkage of cerebellar layers, acute neuronal loss, and sustained atrophy. Paraffin sections from CD1 wild-type mice at 1 and 9 days post-LPS administration were stained with Luxol Fast Blue (myelin, blue) followed by Cresyl Violet (Nissl bodies, purple). (A) Representative images are shown for each condition in the pons, hippocampus, and cerebellum. (B) The widths of each cerebellar layer [external germinal layer (EGL), molecular layer (ML), Purkinje layer, internal granular layer (IGL), white matter layer (WML)] were measured. (C,D) Intensity of Cresyl Violet staining in the EGL and of Luxol Fast Blue in WML were quantified per square micrometer at 1 and 9 days after LPS administration, respectively. (E,F) The number of neurons per field and the area of neuronal cell body (soma) was quantified throughout the pons, in the CA3 hippocampal region, and in the cerebellar Purkinje layer (PL). All determinations were done using ImageJ software (NIH, USA). Results are mean ± SEM from at least five animals. *P < 0.05 vs. without (W/O) LPS.