FTY720 modulates inflammatory responses of lipopolysaccharide (LPS)-activated microglia. Microglial cells treated with LPS (100 ng/ml, DMEM without serum) showed time-dependent phosphorylation of JNK (A) and p38 (B) MAPKs, as determined by Western blot analysis. (C) Pre-treatment for 24 h with FTY720 or FY720-P did not reduce LPS-induced phosphorylation of JNK at 60 min, while a significantly effect was shown on LPS-induced p38 activation at the same time point (D). Levels of phosphorylated target protein were normalized to the expression of the corresponding non-phosphorylated form and expressed as percent of untreated cells. The insets on the top of each graph show corresponding, representative Western blots. Lanes have been cropped from the original gel, and minimal adjustments were made to the brightness and contrast settings to improve the clarity of the figure. All lanes shown are from the same gel. Original uncropped blots are shown in Additional file 1: Figure S1. Values are given as mean ± SEM, n ≥ 3. Statistical analysis: A and B, one-way ANOVA, *P < 0.05 or **P < 0.01 vs untreated cells; C and D, two-tailed t test, *P < 0.05 or **P < 0.01 vs internal control without LPS.