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Fig. 4 | Journal of Neuroinflammation

Fig. 4

From: Inhibition of NADPH oxidase activation reduces EAE-induced white matter damage in mice

Fig. 4

Apocynin modulates microglial responses to MOG. MOG (3 μg/ml) induced morphological transformation of microglia towards amoeboid morphology (a) and increased cell counts (b) suggesting proliferation within 24 h from stimulation. c The superoxide production was measured within an hour after the MOG stimuli. Apocynin (Apo, 600 μM) treatment prevented these microglial responses to MOG stimulation and also reduced basal response levels. Bovine serum albumin (3 μg/ml) was utilized as a control (Ctrl). The graphs show the quantitation of the data. The units shown in B and C are reported as fold changes compared to Ctrl. Data are mean ± sem (n = 4-5) *p < 0.05, #p < 0.05 compared with Ctrl group. d Cytokine analysis demonstrate that MOG increases release of pro-inflammatory cytokines such as IFNɣ, IL-1α, IL-1β, and TNFα and reduces release of anti-inflammatory cytokine such as IL-4, while apocynin treatment reduced pro-inflammatory cytokine release and promoted anti-inflammatory IL-4 release. The units are reported as fold changes compared to Ctrl. Data are mean ± sem (n = 3) *p < 0.05, #p < 0.05 compared with Ctrl group

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