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Table 4 Keypoints review

From: Systemic inflammation and microglial activation: systematic review of animal experiments

• Systemic challenge with LPS and live bacteria cause a profound immunological response in the brain resulting in microglial activation.
• Microglial response after challenge with bacteria is less profound as compared to challenge with LPS, which makes the clinical relevance of using LPS in these animal models questionable.
• When defining microglial activation, researcher should not only focus on proliferation and morphology, but also examine pro-and anti-inflammatory markers indicating M1/M2 responses.
• Mechanisms connecting systemic inflammatory challenge and microglial activation remain unclear, but age is an important intrinsic factor.
• Future experimental studies on studying systemic inflammation and microglial response should do the following:
−use mouse models
−use live bacteria
−use standardized and quantitative measurements of microglial activation
−focus on the role of the aging brain
−apply with the current standards of animal experiments