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Fig. 1 | Journal of Neuroinflammation

Fig. 1

From: Bee venom ameliorates lipopolysaccharide-induced memory loss by preventing NF-kappaB pathway

Fig. 1

Timeline depicting the treatment of BV and assessments of cognitive functions of mice (a). Arrow heads represent days on which acquisition tests were conducted. Inhibitory effect of BV on LPS-induced memory defects. Mice were treated with BV (0.8 and 1.6 μg/kg, i.p.) after 20-min treatment of LPS (2.5 mg/kg, i.p.). The Morris water maze tests and passive avoidance tests were performed as described in the Methods section. LPS injection elongates escape distance (b) and time (c) without affecting average swimming speed (d). LPS decreases the latency to enter the dark compartment. The memory deficit induced by LPS was attenuated by BV treatment (e). Values are presented as mean ± S.E. from eight mice. # p < 0.05 compared to control, * p < 0.05 compared to LPS

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