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Table 3 Changes of retina glial cells and neurons in DR

From: Neuroinflammatory responses in diabetic retinopathy

Neural cell Pathology Cell density Marker Function Signal pathway Model References
Müller cell Nuclear chromatin dispersion, nuclear granulation electrondense GFAP↑ Proinflammatory iNOS/COX2 Rat/rMC-cells [19, 70, 71, 74, 7981, 84]
Angiogenic PEDF Rat
Caspase-1/IL-1β Rat
Wnt/β-catenin Mice
p38 MAPK/NF-κB/IL-6 Human Müller cells
Astrocyte Axonal bundles are scanty, starlike cell bodies are irregularly distributed GFAP↓ Anti-angiogenic COX-2/EP3/PGE2 Human [70, 102]
Microglia Cell bodies appear larger and bore long blunt ruffles with thin thread-like projections CD45, CD68, HLA-DR Proinflammatory MAPK Rat [107, 115, 116, 121]
Angiogenesis P2 receptors/Ca2+ Rat
NF-κB/TNF-α, IL1-β Mice/rat
Ganglion cell Axonal swellings and associated constriction enlarged cell bodies, increased dendritic branches and terminals Thy1 Neurodegeneration ERK1/2/COX-2/PGE2 Rat [129, 136, 137]
MAPK Mice
NF-κB Mice