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Fig. 4 | Journal of Neuroinflammation

Fig. 4

From: Osthole confers neuroprotection against cortical stab wound injury and attenuates secondary brain injury

Fig. 4

Osthole treatment reduces inflammatory cell infiltration and proinflammtory cytokines levels. a Spatial distribution of inflammatory cells around the lesion at 3 dpi. bd MPO+, Iba-1+, and GFAP+ cells, as detected by immunohistochemistry within a single field (box) in the lesioned cortex. Macrophages/microglia (Iba-1+, green), neutrophils (MPO+, red), and astrocytes (GFAP+, red) are shown along with nuclear DAPI staining (blue). e, f Quantitative analysis of inflammatory cells as a function of total cell number (DAPI+). g Quantitative analysis of GFAP expression, as determined by measuring GFAP immunoreactivity pixel intensity. Regions immediately surrounding the lesion (as shown in panel a) were examined using ImageJ software. Scale bar, 50 μm in B–D. h, i IL-6 and TNF-α levels, as assessed by ELISA. Data represent mean ± SD (n = 6 per group). ## P < 0.01 vs. naive control; *P < 0.05, **P < 0.01, vs. SWI control

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