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Fig. 1 | Journal of Neuroinflammation

Fig. 1

From: Amelioration of Japanese encephalitis by blockage of 4-1BB signaling is coupled to divergent enhancement of type I/II IFN responses and Ly-6Chi monocyte differentiation

Fig. 1

Blocking the 4-1BB signaling pathway ameliorates JE along with a reduction in viral burden. a Susceptibility of 4-1BB KO mice to JE. BL/6 and 4-1BB KO mice (4- to 5-week-old, n = 23–50) were inoculated i.p. with JEV (1.5 or 3.0 × 107 PFU), and the survival rate was examined over 15 days. b Ratio of mice showing neurological disorder during JE progression. Mice infected with JEV were examined every 6 h from 4 to 11 dpi, and the ratio of mice showing neurological disorder in inoculated mice was recorded. c Changes in body weight. Changes in body weight are expressed as the average percentage ± SD of body weight relative to the time of challenge. d Exacerbation of JE by 4-1BB signal stimulation. WT mice were intravenously given an agonistic antibody (3E1, 400 μg/mouse) to the 4-1BB signal at −1 and 1 dpi and examined for survival and paralysis rate. e Viral burden in lymphoid and inflammatory tissues during JE. Viral burden in the spleen, brain, and spinal cord of infected mice was assessed by real-time qRT-PCR at the indicated dpi. The viral RNA load is expressed by viral RNA copy number per microgram of total RNA (n = 5–7). *p < 0.05; **p < 0.01; ***p < 0.001 compared with the levels of the indicated groups

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