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Fig. 4 | Journal of Neuroinflammation

Fig. 4

From: Azithromycin drives alternative macrophage activation and improves recovery and tissue sparing in contusion spinal cord injury

Fig. 4

AZM treatment alters the phenotype and toxic potential of pro-inflammatory, M1 macrophages in vitro. Bone marrow-derived macrophages (BMDMs) were isolated from adult mice and stimulated to be M1 using LPS + INFγ in the presence or absence of AZM. Control cells were unstimulated or stimulated with AZM alone. a A high ratio of IL-12:IL-10 is a defining feature of M1 macrophages. AZM significantly decreased M1 production of the pro-inflammatory cytokine IL-12 and increased production of the anti-inflammatory cytokine IL-10. AZM alone had no affect on cytokine production. b MCM from M1 macrophages stimulated with AZM was not toxic to neurons. AZM alone did not significantly affect BMDM neurotoxicity (p > 0.2 for either AZM dose vs. Unstim). Data are representative of three independent replications. *p < 0.05, **p < 0.01 vs. M1. ***p < 0.001 vs. unstim and p < 0.05 vs. M1 + AZM groups. Mean ± SD

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