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Table 2 The factors associated with poor clinical outcomes in patients with severe traumatic brain injury

From: Low serum ficolin-3 levels are associated with severity and poor outcome in traumatic brain injury

Characteristics 1-week mortality prediction 6-month mortality prediction 6-month functional outcome prediction
Non-survivors (n = 20) Survivors (n = 108) P value Non-survivors (n = 40) Survivors(n = 88) P value Unfavorable outcome (n = 64) Favorable outcome (n = 64) P value
Sex (male/female) 13/7 67/41 0.801 27/13 53/35 0.431 44/20 36/28 0.144
Age (years) 45.0 ± 14.5 42.1 ± 15.8 0.440 43.8 ± 15.5 41.9 ± 15.7 0.522 44.6 ± 16.0 40.4 ± 15.1 0.132
Initial postresuscitation GCS score 3 (1) 6 (4) <0.001 3 (1) 6 (3) <0.001 4 (2) 7 (3) <0.001
Pupils unreactive on admission 18 (90.0 %) 44(40.7 %) <0.001 32 (80.0 %) 30 (34.1 %) <0.001 43 (80.0 %) 19 (34.1 %) <0.001
CT classification 5 or 6 15 (75.0 %) 43 (39.8 %) 0.004 25 (62.5 %) 33 (37.5 %) 0.008 36 (56.3 %) 22 (34.4 %) 0.013
Abnormal cisterns on initial CT scan 18 (90.0 %) 42(38.9 %) <0.001 29 (72.5 %) 31(35.2 %) <0.001 40 (62.5 %) 20(31.3 %) <0.001
Midline shift >5 mm on initial CT scan 17 (85.0 %) 48 (44.4 %) 0.001 30 (75.0 %) 35(39.8 %) <0.001 42 (65.6 %) 23(35.9 %) 0.001
Presence of traumatic SAH on initial CT scan 16 (80.0 %) 54(50.0 %) 0.013 29 (72.5 %) 41(46.6 %) 0.006 41 (64.1 %) 29 (45.3 %) 0.033
Intracranial surgery in the first 24 h 12 (60.0 %) 46 (42.6 %) 0.151 21 (52.2 %) 37 (42.1 %) 0.271 31 (48.4 %) 27(42.2 %) 0.478
Admission time (h) 2.3 ± 0.9 2.5 ± 1.3 0.446 2.3 ± 0.9 2.5 ± 1.4 0.384 2.3 ± 1.1 2.6 ± 1.4 0.125
Plasma-sampling time (h) 4.2 ± 1.2 3.7 ± 1.6 0.183 3.7 ± 1.2 3.8 ± 1.7 0.627 3.6 ± 1.5 3.9 ± 1.6 0.220
Systolic arterial pressure (mmHg) 139.1 ± 22.6 128.2 ± 28.0 0.105 126.7 ± 30.7 131.4 ± 25.9 0.370 126.4 ± 31.2 133.5 ± 22.9 0.146
Diastolic arterial pressure (mmHg) 81.7 ± 12.6 76.7 ± 18.7 0.255 77.6 ± 16.5 77.4 ± 18.6 0.942 75.5 ± 20.0 79.4 ± 15.5 0.219
Mean arterial pressure (mmHg) 102.7 ± 15.1 95.4 ± 18.8 0.100 99.0 ± 16.5 95.4 ± 19.2 0.311 95.6 ± 20.4 97.4 ± 16.3 0.572
Plasma C-reactive protein level (mg/L) 11.1 ± 2.3 7.3 ± 3.1 <0.001 10.3 ± 4.1 6.8 ± 2.0 <0.001 9.3 ± 3.7 6.5 ± 1.9 <0.001
Blood glucose level(mmol/L) 12.7 ± 4.0 9.6 ± 3.1 0.002 13.6 ± 4.1 10.0 ± 3.3 <0.001 12.7 ± 4.0 9.6 ± 3.1 <0.001
Serum ficolin-3 levels (μg/mL) 10.1 ± 4.1 16.9 ± 5.6 <0.001 11.4 ± 4.4 17.8 ± 5.5 <0.001 12.7 ± 4.5 19.0 ± 5.5 <0.001
  1. Numerical variables were presented as mean ± standard deviation or median (interquartile range) and analyzed by unpaired Student’s t test or Mann–Whitney U test. Categorical variables were expressed as counts (percentage) and analyzed by chi-square test or Fisher’s exact test
  2. GCS Glasgow Coma Scale, CT computerized tomography, SAH subarachnoid hemorrhage