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Table 1 Microglial cytokine and trophic factor release in vitro upon TNFα stimulation

From: NF-κB transcriptional activation by TNFα requires phospholipase C, extracellular signal-regulated kinase 2 and poly(ADP-ribose) polymerase-1

  Pro-inflammatory cytokines
  IFNγ IL-1β KC MCP-1 MIP-1β
Ctrl (wt) 221.97 ± 36.69 20.4 ± 1.9 157.12 ± 20.8 103.63 ± 21.5 2840.02 ± 357.4
TNFα (wt) 335.76 ± 21.3* 59.38 ± 2.8* 408.13 ± 60.0* 668.0 ± 78.7* 4777.28 ± 527.6*
TNFα + PJ34 (wt) 284.09 ± 21.6** 35.2 ± 2.3** 197.75 ± 25.4** 339.35 ± 77.9** 3081.38 ± 353.7**
PJ34 (wt) 68.48 ± 16.6* 1.35 ± 2.0* 24.67 ± 11.1* 153.96 ± 33.4 1664.42 ± 361.8*
Ctrl (PARP-1−/−) 101.03 ± 21.2* 13.82 ± 4.0* 22.30 ± 6.7* 46.84 ± 16.7* 1104.99 ± 172.0*
TNFα (PARP-1−/−) 101.97 ± 17.9** 14.12 ± 3.0** 67.07 ± 18.9** 84.10 ± 28.7** 1118.34 ± 146.1**
  Anti-inflammatory cytokines and trophic factors
  IL-4 IL-10 IL-13 TGF-β VEGF
Ctrl (wt) 0.8 ± 0.5 21.1 ± 1.2 1.03 ± 0.1 1.11 ± 0.2 4.280 ± 1.2
TNFα (wt) 1.46 ± 0.5 22.78 ± 10.9 0.2 ± 0.3* 1.35 ± 0.2 2.82 ± 0.6
TNFα + PJ34 (wt) 6.09 ± 0.8* 34.77 ± 8.3* 25.00 ± 4.8** 1.41 ± 0.1 39.57 ± 6.6**
PJ34 (wt) 1.48 ± 0.4 19.0 ± 1.3 0.89 ± 0.2 1.31 ± 0.1* 22.92 ± 3.7*
Ctrl (PARP-1−/−) 0.77 ± 0.1 7.47 ± 11.3 5.73 ± 1.1* 1.37 ± 0.1* 13.63 ± 5.3*
TNFα (PARP-1−/−) 0.86 ± 0.4 11.16 ± 1.9 2.69 ± 0.5** 1.90 ± 0.2** 21.98 ± 4.7**
  1. Data is presented as a pg of cytokine detected from the cell culture medium, normalized to mg of protein in corresponding cell culture well (mean ± stdev). PJ34 is a PARP-1 inhibitor. * p ≤ 0.05 compared to ctrl (wt), ** p ≤ 0.05 compared to TNFα (wt), n = 3–4