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Table 1 Demographic and clinical characteristics for TBI patients

From: Inflammatory cytokine and chemokine profiles are associated with patient outcome and the hyperadrenergic state following acute brain injury

Characteristics All TBI patients (n = 166) Moderate TBI (n = 33) Severe TBI (n = 133)
Demographics    
 Age (years) 45.8 ± 20.3 49.5 ± 19.7 44.9 ± 20.4
 Male —n (%) 124 (74.7) 23 (69.7) 101 (75.9)
Clinical characteristics    
 Time to ED (min) 77.6 ± 63.5 74.7 ± 64.8 78.3 ± 63.4
 ISS score 24.4 ± 11.8 18.8 ± 11.5 25.9 ± 11.5
 AIS head 4.1 ± 1.1 3.5 ± 1.2 4.3 ± 1.0
 GCS 5.9 ± 3.0 10.5 ± 1.3 4.7 ± 1.9
Marshall score—n (%)    
 I 28 (16.9) 11 (33.3) 17 (12.8)
 II 76 (45.8) 16 (48.5) 60 (45.1)
 III 13 (7.8) 1 (3.0) 12 (9.0)
 IV 27 (16.3) 3 (9.1) 24 (18.0)
Evacuated mass lesion 21 (12.6) 2 (6.1) 19 (14.3)
Non-evacuated mass lesion 1 (0.6) 0 (0.0) 1 (0.7)
Pre-injury comorbidities—n (%) 45 (27.1) 14 (42.4) 31 (23.3)
Outcomes    
 Mortality—n (%) 45 (27.1) 1 (3.0) 44 (33.0)
 Neurosurgery performed—n (%) 47 (28.3) 5 (15.1) 42 (31.6)
 Sepsis/infection—n (%) 42 (25.3) 7 (21.2) 35 (26.3)
 Organ failure—n (%) 18 (10.8) 0 (0.0) 18 (13.5)
 6-month GOSE 4.0 ± 2.5 5.7 ± 2.1 3.6 ± 2.5
  1. Unless otherwise stated, results are expressed as mean ± standard deviation (SD)
  2. Abbreviations: TBI traumatic brain injury, ED emergency department, ISS injury severity score, AIS abbreviated injury scale, GCS Glasgow coma scale, GOSE extended Glasgow outcome scale